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This article is about the letter of the alphabet. For other uses, see H (disambiguation) .
“Aitch” redirects here. For the surname, see Aitch (surname) . For the community in the United States, see Aitch, Pennsylvania .

H h
( See below )
Writing cursive forms of H
Writing system Latin script
Type Alphabet ic
Language of origin Latin language
Phonetic usage[ h ]
[ x ]
[ ħ ]
[ ɦ ]
[ ɥ ]
[ ʜ ]
[ ʔ ]
[ ◌ʰ ]
[ ç ]
Unicode valueU+0048, U+0068
Alphabetical position8
  • Ḥet
    • Heth
      • Ḥet
        • Heth.svg
          • Early Greek Heta
            • Η η
              • 𐌇
                • H h
Time period~-700 to present
Descendants • Ħ
 • Ƕ
 • Ⱶ
 • Һ
 • ʰ
 • h
 • ħ
 • ℍ
Sisters Һ

Հ հ
Variations( See below )
Other letters commonly used with h(x) , ch , gh , nh , ph , sh , ſh , th , wh , (x)h
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA .
ISO basic
Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd
Ee Ff Gg Hh
Ii Jj Kk Ll
Mm Nn Oo Pp
Qq Rr Ss Tt
Uu Vv Ww Xx
Yy Zz
  • v
  • t
  • e

H ( named aitch // or, regionally, haitch /h/ , plural aitches) [1] [2] is the eighth letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet .


  • 1 History
  • 2 Name in English
  • 3 Use in writing systems
    • 3.1 English
    • 3.2 Other languages
    • 3.3 Other systems
  • 4 Related characters
    • 4.1 Descendants and related characters in the Latin alphabet
    • 4.2 Ancestors, siblings and descendants in other alphabets
    • 4.3 Derived signs, symbols and abbreviations
  • 5 Computing codes
  • 6 Other representations
  • 7 See also
  • 8 References
  • 9 External links


Egyptian hieroglyph 
Old Semitic
H |
Proto-semiticH-01.svg PhoenicianH-01.svg PhoenicianH-01.svg Greek Eta 2-bars.svg
Greek Eta square-2-bars.svg Greek Eta diagonal.svg
PhoenicianH-01.svg Greek uncial Eta.svg

The original Semitic letter Heth most likely represented the voiceless pharyngeal fricative ( ħ ). The form of the letter probably stood for a fence or posts.

The Greek eta ‘Η’ in Archaic Greek alphabets still represented /h/ (later on it came to represent a long vowel, /ɛː/). In this context, the letter eta is also known as heta to underline this fact. Thus, in the Old Italic alphabets , the letter heta of the Euboean alphabet was adopted with its original sound value /h/.

While Etruscan and Latin had /h/ as a phoneme , almost all Romance languages lost the sound— Romanian later re-borrowed the /h/ phoneme from its neighbouring Slavic languages, and Spanish developed a secondary /h/ from /f/, before losing it again; various Spanish dialects have developed [h] as an allophone of /s/ or /x/ in most Spanish-speaking countries, and various dialects of Portuguese use it as an allophone of /ʀ/. ‘H’ is also used in many spelling systems in digraphs and trigraphs , such as ‘ch’, which represents /tʃ/ in Spanish, Galician , Old Portuguese and English , /ʃ/ in French and modern Portuguese, /k/ in Italian , French and English, /x/ in German , Czech , Polish , Slovak, one native word of English and a few loanwords into English, and /ç/ in German.

Name in English

For most English speakers, the name for the letter is pronounced as // and spelled ‘aitch’ [1] or occasionally ‘eitch’. The pronunciation /h/ and the associated spelling ‘haitch’ is often considered to be h-adding [ citation needed ] and is considered nonstandard in England. [3] It is, however, a feature of Hiberno-English . [4]

The perceived name of the letter affects the choice of indefinite article before initialisms beginning with H: for example “an H-bomb” or “a H-bomb”. The pronunciation /heɪtʃ/ may be a hypercorrection formed by analogy with the names of the other letters of the alphabet, most of which include the sound they represent. [5]

The haitch pronunciation of h has spread in England, being used by approximately 24% of English people born since 1982 [6] and polls continue to show this pronunciation becoming more common among younger native speakers. Despite this increasing number, the pronunciation without the /h/ sound is still considered to be standard in England, although the pronunciation with /h/ is also attested as a legitimate variant. [3]

Authorities disagree about the history of the letter’s name. The Oxford English Dictionary says the original name of the letter was [ˈaha] in Latin; this became [ˈaka] in Vulgar Latin, passed into English via Old French [atʃ], and by Middle English was pronounced [aːtʃ]. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language derives it from French hache from Latin haca or hic. Anatoly Liberman suggests a conflation of two obsolete orderings of the alphabet, one with H immediately followed by K and the other without any K: reciting the former’s …, H, K, L,… as […(h)a ka el …] when reinterpreted for the latter …, H, L,… would imply a pronunciation [(h)a ka] for H. [7]

Use in writing systems


In English, ⟨h⟩ occurs as a single-letter grapheme (being either silent or representing the voiceless glottal fricative ( /h/ ) and in various digraphs , such as ⟨ch⟩ // , /ʃ/ , /k/ , or /x/ ), ⟨gh⟩ (silent, /ɡ/, /k/, /p/, or /f/), ⟨ph⟩ (/f/), ⟨rh⟩ (/r/), ⟨sh⟩ ( /ʃ/ ), ⟨th⟩ ( /θ/ or /ð/ ), ⟨wh⟩ (/ hw / [8] ). The letter is silent in a syllable rime , as in ah, ohm, dahlia, cheetah, pooh-poohed, as well as in certain other words (mostly of French origin) such as hour, honest, herb (in American but not British English ) and vehicle. Initial /h/ is often not pronounced in the weak form of some function words including had, has, have, he, her, him, his, and in some varieties of English (including most regional dialects of England and Wales) it is often omitted in all words (see ‘⟨h⟩’-dropping ). It was formerly common for an rather than a to be used as the indefinite article before a word beginning with /h/ in an unstressed syllable, as in “an historian”, but use of a is now more usual (see English articles § Indefinite article ).

Other languages

In the German language , the name of the letter is pronounced /haː/. Following a vowel, it often silently indicates that the vowel is long: In the word erhöhen (‘heighten’), the second ⟨h⟩ is mute for most speakers outside of Switzerland. In 1901, a spelling reform eliminated the silent ⟨h⟩ in nearly all instances of ⟨th⟩ in native German words such as thun (‘to do’) or Thür (‘door’). It has been left unchanged in words derived from Greek, such as Theater (‘theater’) and Thron (‘throne’), which continue to be spelled with ⟨th⟩ even after the last German spelling reform.

In Spanish and Portuguese, ⟨h⟩ (“hache” in Spanish, pronounced Spanish pronunciation:  [‘atʃe] , or agá in Portuguese, pronounced [aˈɣa] or [ɐˈɡa] ) is a silent letter with no pronunciation, as in hijo [ˈixo] (‘son’) and húngaro [ˈũɡaɾu] (‘Hungarian’). The spelling reflects an earlier pronunciation of the sound /h/. It is sometimes pronounced with the value [h], in some regions of Andalusia, Extremadura, Canarias, Cantabria and the Americas in the beginning of some words. ⟨h⟩ also appears in the digraph ⟨ch⟩, which represents /tʃ/ in Spanish and northern Portugal, and /ʃ/ in oral traditions that merged both sounds (the latter originarily represented by ⟨x⟩ instead) e.g. in most of the Portuguese language and some Spanish-speaking places, prominently Chile, as well as ⟨nh⟩ /ɲ/ and ⟨lh⟩ /ʎ/ in Portuguese, whose spelling is inherited from Occitan .

In French, the name of the letter is pronounced /aʃ/. The French orthography classifies words that begin with this letter in two ways, one of which can affect the pronunciation, even though it is a silent letter either way. The H muet, or “mute” ⟨h⟩, is considered as though the letter were not there at all, so for example the singular definite article le or la, which is elided to l’ before a vowel, elides before an H muet followed by a vowel. For example, le + hébergement becomes l’hébergement (‘the accommodation’). The other kind of ⟨h⟩ is called h aspiré (” aspirated ‘⟨h⟩’ “, though it is not normally aspirated phonetically), and does not allow elision or liaison . For example in le homard (‘the lobster’) the article le remains unelided, and may be separated from the noun with a bit of a glottal stop. Most words that begin with an H muet come from Latin (honneur, homme) or from Greek through Latin (hécatombe), whereas most words beginning with an H aspiré come from Germanic (harpe, hareng) or non-Indo-European languages (harem, hamac, haricot); in some cases, an orthographic ⟨h⟩ was added to disambiguate the [v] and semivowel [ɥ] pronunciations before the introduction of the distinction between the letters ⟨v⟩ and ⟨u⟩: huit (from uit, ultimately from Latin octo), huître (from uistre, ultimately from Greek through Latin ostrea).

In Italian, ⟨h⟩ has no phonological value. Its most important uses are in the digraphs ‘ch’ /k/ and ‘gh’ /ɡ/, as well as to differentiate the spellings of certain short words that are homophones , for example some present tense forms of the verb avere (‘to have’) (such as hanno, ‘they have’, vs. anno, ‘year’), and in short interjections (oh, ehi).

Some languages, including Czech , Slovak , Hungarian , and Finnish , use ⟨h⟩ as a breathy voiced glottal fricative [ɦ], often as an allophone of otherwise voiceless /h/ in a voiced environment.

In Hungarian , the letter has five independent pronunciations, perhaps more than in any other language, with an additional three uses as a productive and non-productive member of a digraph. H may represent /h/ as in the name of the Székely town Hargita ; intervocalically it represents /ɦ/ as in “tehéz”; it represents /x/ in the word “doh”; it represents /ç/ in “ihlet”; and it is silent in “Cseh”. As part of a diphthong, it represents, in archaic spelling, /t͡ʃ/ with the letter C as in the name ” Széchényi ; it represents, again, with the letter C, /x/ in “pech” (which is pronounced [pɛx]); in certain environments it breaks palatalization of a consonant, as in the name “Horthy” which is pronounced [hɔrti] (without the intervening H, the name “Horty” would be pronounced [hɔrc]); and finally, it acts as a silent component of a diphthong, as in the name “Vargha”, pronounced [vɒrgɒ].

In Ukrainian and Belarusian , when written in the Latin alphabet, ⟨h⟩ is also commonly used for /ɦ/, which is otherwise written with the Cyrillic letter ⟨г⟩.

In Irish , ⟨h⟩ is not considered an independent letter, except for a very few non-native words, however ⟨h⟩ placed after a consonant is known as a “séimhiú” and indicates lenition of that consonant; ⟨h⟩ began to replace the original form of a séimhiú, a dot placed above the consonant, after the introduction of typewriters.

In most dialects of Polish, both ⟨h⟩ and the digraph ⟨ch⟩ always represent /x/.

In Basque , during the 20th century it was not used in the orthography of the Basque dialects in Spain but it marked an aspiration in the North-Eastern dialects.
During the standardization of Basque in the 1970s, the compromise was reached that h would be accepted if it were the first consonant in a syllable.
Hence, herri (“people”) and etorri (“to come”) were accepted instead of erri ( Biscayan ) and ethorri ( Souletin ).
Speakers could pronounce the h or not.
For the dialects lacking the aspiration, this meant a complication added to the standardized spelling.

Other systems

As a phonetic symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), it is used mainly for the so-called aspirations (fricative or trills), and variations of the plain letter are used to represent two sounds: the lowercase form ⟨ h ⟩ represents the voiceless glottal fricative , and the small capital form ⟨ ʜ ⟩ represents the voiceless epiglottal fricative (or trill). With a bar, minuscule ⟨ ħ ⟩ is used for a voiceless pharyngeal fricative . Specific to the IPA, a hooked ⟨ ɦ ⟩ is used for a voiced glottal fricative , and a superscript ⟨ ʰ ⟩ is used to represent aspiration .

Related characters

Descendants and related characters in the Latin alphabet

  • H with diacritics : Ĥ ĥ Ȟ ȟ Ħ ħ Ḩ ḩ Ⱨ ⱨ ẖ ẖ Ḥ ḥ Ḣ ḣ Ḧ ḧ Ḫ ḫ ꞕ
  • IPA -specific symbols related to H: ʜ ɦ ʰ ʱ ɥ [9]
  • ᴴ : Modifier letter H is used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet [10]
  • ₕ : Subscript small h was used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet prior to its formal standardization in 1902 [11]
  • ʰ : Modifier letter small h is used in Indo-European studies [12]
  • ʮ and ʯ  : Turned H with fishhook and turned H with fishhook and tail are used in Sino-Tibetanist linguistics [13]
  • Ƕ ƕ : Latin letter hwair , derived from a ligature of the digraph hv, and used to transliterate the Gothic letter 𐍈 (which represented the sound [hʷ])
  • Ⱶ ⱶ : Claudian letters [14]

Ancestors, siblings and descendants in other alphabets

  • 𐤇 : Semitic letter Heth , from which the following symbols derive
    • Η η : Greek letter Eta , from which the following symbols derive
      • 𐌇 : Old Italic H, the ancestor of modern Latin H
        • ᚺ, ᚻ : Runic letter haglaz , which is probably a descendant of Old Italic H
      • Һ һ : Cyrillic letter Shha , which derives from Latin H
      • 𐌷 : Gothic letter haal

Derived signs, symbols and abbreviations

  • h : Planck constant
  • ℏ : reduced Planck constant
  • ℍ: Double-struck capital H

Computing codes

Unicode 72U+0048104U+0068
UTF-8 724810468
Numeric character reference HHhh
EBCDIC family200C813688
ASCII 1724810468

1 and all encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.

Other representations

NATO phonetic Morse code
Hotel ····
ICS Hotel.svg Semaphore Hotel.svg Sign language H.svg ⠓
Signal flag Flag semaphore American manual alphabet ( ASL fingerspelling ) Braille

See also

  • American Sign Language grammar
  • List of hieroglyphs/H


  1. ^ a b “H” Oxford English Dictionary , 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster’s Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); “aitch” or “haitch”, op. cit.
  2. ^ “the definition of h” . Dictionary.com. Retrieved 28 September 2017. 
  3. ^ a b Haitch’ or ‘aitch’? How do you pronounce ‘H’?” . BBC News. Retrieved 3 September 2016. 
  4. ^ Dolan, T. P. (1 January 2004). “A Dictionary of Hiberno-English: The Irish Use of English” . Gill & Macmillan Ltd. Retrieved 3 September 2016 – via Google Books. 
  5. ^ Todd, L. & Hancock I.: “International English Ipod”, page 254. Routledge, 1990.
  6. ^ John C Wells , Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, page 360, Pearson, Harlow, 2008
  7. ^ Liberman, Anatoly (7 August 2013). “Alphabet soup, part 2: H and Y” . Oxford Etymologist. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  8. ^ In many dialects, /hw/ and /w/ have merged
  9. ^ Constable, Peter (2004-04-19). “L2/04-132 Proposal to add additional phonetic characters to the UCS” (PDF). 
  10. ^ Everson, Michael ; et al. (2002-03-20). “L2/02-141: Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS” (PDF). 
  11. ^ Ruppel, Klaas; Aalto, Tero; Everson, Michael (2009-01-27). “L2/09-028: Proposal to encode additional characters for the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet” (PDF). 
  12. ^ Anderson, Deborah; Everson, Michael (2004-06-07). “L2/04-191: Proposal to encode six Indo-Europeanist phonetic characters in the UCS” (PDF). 
  13. ^ Cook, Richard; Everson, Michael (2001-09-20). “L2/01-347: Proposal to add six phonetic characters to the UCS” (PDF). 
  14. ^ Everson, Michael (2005-08-12). “L2/05-193R2: Proposal to add Claudian Latin letters to the UCS” (PDF). 

External links

Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article H .
Wikimedia Commons has media related to H .
  • The dictionary definition of H at Wiktionary
  • The dictionary definition of h at Wiktionary
  • Lubliner, Coby. 2008. “The Story of H.” (essay on origins and uses of the letter “h”)
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Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm
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Letter H with diacritics
Ĥĥ Ȟȟ Ḧḧ Ḣḣ Ḩḩ Ḥḥ Ḫḫ H̱ẖ Ħħ Ⱨⱨ Ɦɦ
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