in text turabian citation examples - UniversityEssaydatesCom

in text turabian citation examples

By | 10.08.2018

  • Bennett Home
  • Bellemail
  • Bellenet
  • Bellecenter
  • Campus Directory

Quick Links

Holgate Library Home
Research Guides Home
Library Tutorials
Research Toolkit
ILL Request Form
Ask a Librarian!

Topical Guides

  • Writing & Citing
  • Copyright & Fair Use
  • Grad School or Bust!
  • Test Preparation

Subject Guides

  • Biology
  • Business & Economics
  • Chemistry
  • Computer Science
  • Education
  • English
  • Health & Wellness
  • History
  • Journalism & Media Studies
  • Mathematics
  • Music
  • Philosophy
  • Political Science
  • Psychology
  • Religious Studies
  • Social Work
  • Sociology
  • Theatre
  • Women’s Studies

Focus Area Guides

  • Communications
  • Entrepreneurship
  • Global Studies
  • Leadership

Turabian Style: In-Text (Parenthetical) Citations & Reference List

The Turabian citation style offers two different documentation systems. Writers in the natural, physical, and social sciences commonly employ a system that links in-text author and date information with a reference list:
(IT) In-Text Author & Date Information Parentheses should enclose in-text references. When page numbers are required, they should be separated by a comma. 
 (R) Reference List. The first line should begin flush with the left margin, with following lines in the entry indented five spaces.

In-Text (Parenthetical) & Reference List: Sample Citations

The examples cited below illustrate common material formats. For additional examples or more information, please see A Manuel for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 7th ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2007– available in the Library Reference Room (Ref LB2369.T8)  


One author

IT:  (Doniger 1999, 65)

Doniger, Wendy. 1999. Splitting the difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Two authors

 (Cowlishaw and Dunbar 2000, 104–7)
Cowlishaw, Guy, and Robin Dunbar. 2000. Primate conservation biology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Four or more authors

(Laumann et al. 1994, 262)
Laumann, Edward O., John H. Gagnon, Robert T. Michael, and Stuart Michaels. 1994. The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Editor, translator, or compiler instead of author

(Lattimore 1951, 91–92)
Lattimore, Richmond, trans. 1951. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Editor, translator, or compiler in addition to author

(Bonnefoy 1995, 22)
Bonnefoy, Yves. 1995. New and selected poems. Ed. John Naughton and Anthony Rudolf. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Chapter or other part of a book

(Wiese 2006, 101–2)
Wiese, Andrew. 2006. “The house I live in”: Race, class, and African American suburban dreams in the postwar United States. In The new suburban history, ed. Kevin M. Kruse and Thomas J. Sugrue, 99–119. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Chapter of an edited volume originally published elsewhere (as in primary sources)

(Cicero 1986, 35)
Cicero, Quintus Tullius. 1986. Handbook on canvassing for the consulship. In Rome: Late republic and principate, edited by Walter Emil Kaegi Jr. and Peter White. Vol. 2 ofUniversity of Chicago readings in western civilization, ed. John Boyer and Julius Kirshner, 33–46. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Originally published in Evelyn S. Shuckburgh, trans., The letters of Cicero, vol. 1 (London: George Bell & Sons, 1908).

Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a bookP:

(Rieger 1982, xx–xxi)
Rieger, James. 1982. Introduction to Frankenstein; or, The modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, xi–xxxvii. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Book published electronically

(Kurland and Lerner 1987)
Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. 1987. The founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (accessed June 27, 2006).
Journal article

Article in a print journal

(Smith 1998, 639)
Smith, John Maynard. 1998. The origin of altruism. Nature 393: 639–40.

Article in an online journal

(Hlatky et al. 2002)
Hlatky, Mark A., Derek Boothroyd, Eric Vittinghoff, Penny Sharp, and Mary A. Whooley. 2002. Quality-of-life and depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women after receiving hormone therapy: Results from the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (February 6), January 7, 2004).
Popular magazine article
(Martin 2002, 84)
Martin, Steve. 2002. Sports-interview shocker. New Yorker, May 6.
Newspaper article

Newspaper articles may be cited in running text (“As William Niederkorn noted in aNew York Times article on June 20, 2002, . . . ”) instead of in a note or a parenthetical citation, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography or reference list as well. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

(Niederkorn 2002)
Niederkorn, William S. 2002. A scholar recants on his “Shakespeare” discovery. New York Times, June 20, Arts section, Midwest edition.
Book review
(Gorman 2002, 16)
Gorman, James. 2002. Endangered species. Review of The last American man, by Elizabeth Gilbert. New York Times Book Review, June 2.
Thesis or dissertation
(Amundin 1991, 22–29, 35)
Amundin, M. 1991. Click repetition rate patterns in communicative sounds from the harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena. PhD diss., Stockholm University.
Paper presented at a meeting or conference
(Doyle 2002)
Doyle, Brian. 2002. Howling like dogs: Metaphorical language in Psalm 59. Paper presented at the annual international meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, June 19–22, in Berlin, Germany.
Web site

Web sites may be cited in running text (“On its Web site, the Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees states . . .”) instead of in a parenthetical citation, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography or reference list as well. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

(Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees)
Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. Evanston Public Library strategic plan, 2000–2010: A decade of outreach. Evanston Public Library. (accessed June 1, 2005).
Weblog entry or comment

Weblog entries or comments may be cited in running text (“In a comment posted to the Becker-Posner Blog on March 6, 2006, Peter Pearson noted . . .”) instead of in a note or a parenthetical citation, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography or reference list as well. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

(Peter Pearson, The Becker-Posner Blog, comment posted March 6, 2006)
Becker-Posner blog, The. (accessed March 28, 2006).
E-mail message

E-mail messages may be cited in running text (“In an e-mail message to the author on October 31, 2005, John Doe revealed . . .”) instead of in a note or a parenthetical citation, and they are rarely listed in a bibliography or reference list. The following example shows the more formal version of a note.

N: 2. John Doe, e-mail message to author, October 31, 2005.

Item in online database

Journal articles published in online databases should be cited as shown above, under “Article in an online journal.”

(Pliny the Elder, Perseus Digital Library)
Perseus Digital Library. (accessed November 17, 2005).

Examples provided by the “Turabian Citation Guide.” The University of Chicago Press | Home . (accessed July 19, 2012).

Report Abuse Print Page Powered By Google Sites

Turabian Mobile Logo
Turabian Mobile Toggle Navigation

A Manual for

Chicago Style for Students and Researchers
Citation Quick Guide
Help & Tools
Tip Sheets


Go to Notes and Bibliography Style
Go to Author-Date Style

Source citations in the Turabian manual come in two varieties: (1) notes and bibliography (or simply notes) and (2) author-date. These two systems are also sometimes referred to as Chicago-style citations, because they are the same as the ones presented in The Chicago Manual of Style.

If you already know which system to use, follow one of the links above to see sample citations for a variety of common sources. Otherwise, read on.

Notes and Bibliography or Author-Date?

The  notes and bibliography style is popular in the humanities—including literature, history, and the arts. In this system, sources are cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes. Each note corresponds to a raised (superscript) number in the text. Sources are also usually listed in a separate bibliography. This system is very flexible and can easily accommodate a wide variety of sources.

The  author-date style is more common in the physical, natural, and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and year of publication. Each citation in the text matches up with an entry in a reference list, where full bibliographic information is provided.

Aside from the way they cite sources in the text, the two styles are very similar. To compare them, follow the links at the top of this page, where you’ll find examples of the more common source types cited in each style.

If you’re not sure which style you should use, ask your instructor. You will also find more information here .

For a more detailed description of the styles and many more examples, see chapters 16 and 17 of the 9th edition of the Turabian manual for notes style and chapters 18 and 19 for author-date style.

Skip to main content

Arizona State University


  • ASU Home
  • My ASU
  • Colleges & Schools
  • Map & Locations
  • Directory

ASU Library


Login to LibApps

Citation Styles

Help with different citation styles including how to format citations.

  1. Library

  2. LibGuides

  3. How to Guides

  4. Citation Styles

  5. About This Guide

  • About This Guide

    • Who Should Use This Guide
    • How to Use This Guide
    • When & Why You Should Cite the Sources You Use
    • Selecting a Citation Style
    • Related Library Guides
  • APA

    Toggle Dropdown

    • In-Text Citations -Basics

    • Reference List – Basics

    • Examples of APA Style – Basics

  • MLA

    Toggle Dropdown

    • In-Text Citations – Basics

    • Works Cited – Basics

    • Examples of MLA Style – Basics

  • Chicago

    Toggle Dropdown

    • Examples of Chicago Style -Basics

  • Turabian

    Toggle Dropdown

    • Examples of Turabian Style – Reference List – Basics

    • Examples of Turabian Style – Bibliographic – Basics

  • More Citation Styles

  • Academic Integrity & Plagiarism

  • ASU Graduate Education

  • Tutorials

Need More Help?

ASU Library AskaLibrarian Logo




  • Ask a research question

  • Report a technical or One Search issue

  • Call us at 480-965-3605

  • Visit the library info desk

  • Give us your feedback

Who Should Use This Guide

This Library Guide is intended to support the research needs of students and faculty who need information about:

  • when to cite a source
  • what citation style to use
  • how to create citations
  • establishing a RefWorks account

An overview of several of the most frequently used citation styles as well as access to additional styles used within the scientific disciplines is presented here. Official style guides provide documentation on and examples of how individual associations, journals or publishers format citations, bibliographies and footnotes.

How to Use This Guide

Use the tabs across the top of this guide to assist you in finding the relevant information. 

Individual citation styles [e.g APA, MLA etc] that are used across multiple disciplines warrant individual tabs with more detailed information. 

Many disciplines within the Sciences have unique citation styles; for example, Physics, Chemistry & Engineering etc, use citations styles specific to that discipline. A list of some of these citation styles can be found under the “More Citation Styles” tab of this guide. Subject librarians in the sciences have also included citation information within the subject library guides.


When & Why You Should Cite the Sources You Use

Why should you cite your sources?
  • Citations credit the author of the original work who provided you with the information or idea
  • Citations allow your audience to identify and find the source material in order to learn more about your topic
  • Citations give your paper more credibility because it shows you’re supporting your arguments with high-quality sources
  • Citations help you avoid plagiarism & demonstrate your integrity as a responsible researcher and participant in your field of study 

When to Cite Sources

Information that contributed to your thoughts, analysis or synthesis of ideas should be cited. Following are examples of when you should always cite your sources.

    • Direct quotes of more than one word; the author’s wordsare used to make your argument
    • Paraphrase someone’s ideas by putting the idea or words into your own words
    • Summarize someone elses ideas or thoughts
    • Information that generally may be considered common knowledge but is not familiar to your reader inclding statistical information
    • Information you are not sure should be cited should be cited to avoid plagiarism


    Selecting a Citation Style

    Deciding which specific citation style to use depends on several factors:

    • what style is most-used in the discipline for which you are writing
    • what style is recommended or required by your instructor, department, school or college; always confirm with the instructor as to what specific style guide is allowed/required
    • what style is required by the editor, association or other source in which you are submitting a document for publication

    Related Library Guides

    Citation Management Tools  – Manage your research with tools like RefWorks, Mendeley, Zotero, EndNote, and more.

    RefWorks  – Get started with your RefWorks account.

    • Note: ASU Library’s institutional subscription to RefWorks will be discontinued on June 30, 2019. In addition, no new RefWorks accounts will be available after December 31, 2018. For more information, please visit the RefWorks Transition page:

    • Next: APA >>

    • Last Updated: Aug 16, 2018 12:55 PM
    • URL:
    • Print Page
    Login to LibApps

    Bibliographic Tools & Library Science , General

    APA , Chicago , Citing Sources , MLA , Turabian

    Arizona State University Library

    Maps and Addresses


    Federal Depository Library Program Emblem

    About the Library

    • Employment
    • Library News
    • Policies
    • Support the Library
    • We’re Listening!
    • Who We Are

    Contact Us

    • Ask a Librarian
    • Feedback
    • Staff Directory

    Hours and Locations

    • Hours
    • Maps and Locations

    ASU is #1 in the U.S. for Innovation

    Best Colleges U.S. News Most Innovative 2017

    Iconic One Theme | Powered by Wordpress