Holgate Library Home
Research Guides Home
ILL Request Form
Ask a Librarian!
Turabian Style: In-Text (Parenthetical) Citations & Reference List
CITATION QUICK GUIDE
Source citations in the Turabian manual come in two varieties: (1) notes and bibliography (or simply notes) and (2) author-date. These two systems are also sometimes referred to as Chicago-style citations, because they are the same as the ones presented in The Chicago Manual of Style.
If you already know which system to use, follow one of the links above to see sample citations for a variety of common sources. Otherwise, read on.
Notes and Bibliography or Author-Date?
The notes and bibliography style is popular in the humanities—including literature, history, and the arts. In this system, sources are cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes. Each note corresponds to a raised (superscript) number in the text. Sources are also usually listed in a separate bibliography. This system is very flexible and can easily accommodate a wide variety of sources.
The author-date style is more common in the physical, natural, and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and year of publication. Each citation in the text matches up with an entry in a reference list, where full bibliographic information is provided.
Aside from the way they cite sources in the text, the two styles are very similar. To compare them, follow the links at the top of this page, where you’ll find examples of the more common source types cited in each style.
If you’re not sure which style you should use, ask your instructor. You will also find more information here .
For a more detailed description of the styles and many more examples, see chapters 16 and 17 of the 9th edition of the Turabian manual for notes style and chapters 18 and 19 for author-date style.
Skip to main content
- How to Guides
- Citation Styles
- About This Guide
Who Should Use This Guide
This Library Guide is intended to support the research needs of students and faculty who need information about:
- when to cite a source
- what citation style to use
- how to create citations
- establishing a RefWorks account
An overview of several of the most frequently used citation styles as well as access to additional styles used within the scientific disciplines is presented here. Official style guides provide documentation on and examples of how individual associations, journals or publishers format citations, bibliographies and footnotes.
How to Use This Guide
Use the tabs across the top of this guide to assist you in finding the relevant information.
Individual citation styles [e.g APA, MLA etc] that are used across multiple disciplines warrant individual tabs with more detailed information.
Many disciplines within the Sciences have unique citation styles; for example, Physics, Chemistry & Engineering etc, use citations styles specific to that discipline. A list of some of these citation styles can be found under the “More Citation Styles” tab of this guide. Subject librarians in the sciences have also included citation information within the subject library guides.
When & Why You Should Cite the Sources You Use
- Citations credit the author of the original work who provided you with the information or idea
- Citations allow your audience to identify and find the source material in order to learn more about your topic
- Citations give your paper more credibility because it shows you’re supporting your arguments with high-quality sources
- Citations help you avoid plagiarism & demonstrate your integrity as a responsible researcher and participant in your field of study
When to Cite Sources
Information that contributed to your thoughts, analysis or synthesis of ideas should be cited. Following are examples of when you should always cite your sources.
- Direct quotes of more than one word; the author’s wordsare used to make your argument
- Paraphrase someone’s ideas by putting the idea or words into your own words
- Summarize someone elses ideas or thoughts
- Information that generally may be considered common knowledge but is not familiar to your reader inclding statistical information
- Information you are not sure should be cited should be cited to avoid plagiarism
Selecting a Citation Style
Deciding which specific citation style to use depends on several factors:
- what style is most-used in the discipline for which you are writing
- what style is recommended or required by your instructor, department, school or college; always confirm with the instructor as to what specific style guide is allowed/required
- what style is required by the editor, association or other source in which you are submitting a document for publication
Related Library Guides
Citation Management Tools – Manage your research with tools like RefWorks, Mendeley, Zotero, EndNote, and more.
RefWorks – Get started with your RefWorks account.
- Note: ASU Library’s institutional subscription to RefWorks will be discontinued on June 30, 2019. In addition, no new RefWorks accounts will be available after December 31, 2018. For more information, please visit the RefWorks Transition page: lib.asu.edu/refworks-transition
- Next: APA >>
- Last Updated: Aug 16, 2018 12:55 PM
- URL: https://libguides.asu.edu/citing
- Print Page
Bibliographic Tools & Library Science , General
APA , Chicago , Citing Sources , MLA , Turabian
Maps and Addresses
About the Library
- Library News
- Support the Library
- We’re Listening!
- Who We Are
- Ask a Librarian
- Staff Directory
Hours and Locations
- Maps and Locations
ASU is #1 in the U.S. for Innovation